The AP World History Podcast: With Austin Pray and Alex Taylor, the “WHAP Podcast” helps review key concepts in AP World History
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Chapter 27 thru 35 Test Review
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Episode 11 - Chapter 27 - 35 Test Review

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What is/are the primary reason(s) Russia lost the Crimean War?

lack of industrialization, Russia's society was still based on serf labor

Which 19th century Russian Czar was known as a reformer? What did he do and in what years?

Alexander II,serfs were emancipated in 1861,1860s-1870s law codes made less severe, created zemstvoes or local political councils.

What was the goal of the Russian Intelligentisia?

"Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class; 19th-century group bent on radical change in Russian political and social system; often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West."

What was the "Duma"?

The Duma was a national parliament that was created in Russia after the Revolution of 1905. It wooed liberals and came up with a series of reforms for the peasants. The duma was not long lasting. With the rise of the weak Nicholas II, the duma became a hollow institution and Nicholas took autocratic rule. (p. 657)

Who was Lenin? What did he do?

Leader of the early Soviet Union,ended Russia's involvement in WWI,promising 'peace and bread'

How did the peasants of Russia respond to the reforms of 1905?

After the duma was created and some reforms were made, the peasants of Russia slowly became to slow down and social unrest died down. The reforms did not last long. It triggered a new series of strikes and underground activities. (p. 657)

Who were Kulaks?

Kulaks were a minority of aggressive entrepreneurs that began to increase agricultural production and buy additional land after the reforms following the Revolution of 1905. (p. 657)

What was the "League of Nations"? What did they do?

The League of Nations was a organization for the leaders of large countries to meet and discuss their actions,often condemned Nazi German actions, but did not do much of anything.

What was the Ottoman Empire broken up into after WWI?

Mandates controlled by the British and French

What place was invaded by the Japanese in 1931? In 1937?

China was invaded by Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, it ended in 1945

How did Hitler come to power?

By completely legal means. He exploited the German consitution and rose to the power of dictator constitionally rather than by force of arms.

Who was the first fascist dictator in Europe?

Benito Mussolini

When did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?

December 7, 1941

Why would Russia help Serbia?

common Slavic heritage, regional alliances

Who was the Leader of Germany's "National Socialists"?

The National Socialist Party, also known as the Nazi Party, was headed by Adolf Hitler.

What was the "Iron Curtain"?

the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The Iron Curtain was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II.

What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

an universal agreement outlawing war forever signed 1928

What was the New Deal?

US President FDR's reforms that were a precursor of the modern welfare state,programs to fight the Great Depression and to stimulate the economy

What was the Treaty of Versailles?

the treaty that ended WWI,alienating the Germans by making them accept guilt,demilitarize the Rhineland,and making them pay tribute

What was The Feminine Mystique?

A book of Feminist ideology by Betty Friedan, published 1963

What was the Aswan Dam?

a project in Egypt sponsored by Abdul Nasser, intended to promote development, which failed. 

What was the E.E.C.? What was the E.U.

The European Economic Community;alliance of 6 European nations(Germany,France,Italy,Belgium,Luxembourg,and the Netherlands), to set up economic unity in 1958, later joined by Britain,Ireland,Denmark,Greece, Spain,Portugal,Sweden,Austria,and Finland,and in the 1990's changed it's name to the European Union or EU

What was the Welfare State?

The welfare state was an idea that became dominant in powerful, economically stable countries after WWII. The European welfare state elaborated a host of social insurance measures. Unemployment insurance was improved. Medical care was supported by state-funded insurance. Family assistance for families with many children was created. The welfare state increased contacts between government and citizens and produced a host of new regulations. (p. 714)

What was a "Soviet"?

council of workers formed to seize city government in petrograd in 1917; basis for early political organization of russian revolution

What were Russia and the USSR like when Stalin was the leader?

Stalin was a totalitarian, introduced a command economy, rapidly industrialized and uprooted the agricultural sector which caused famine

What changed and what stayed the same after Stalin died?

Stalin was succeeded by a collective leadership after his death, end to the role of large-scale forced labor in the economy, stalin's cult of personality ended, oppression of the people was lessened, Economic growth continued, 

Who succeeded Stalin?

Nikita Kreuschev (p. 745)

What was the Politburo?

Executive committee of the soviet communist party; 20 members (p.737)

Who was Gorbachev and what did he do?

the last Soviet premier,introduced glasnost,or political freedoms,and perestroika,or economic reform.

What does "First World" mean?

Industrialized Capitalist countries

What does "Second World" mean? 

Industrialized Communist Countries

What does "Third World" mean?

Third World countries are underdeveloped and not much industrialization

Who was Yuri Gagarin?

Yuri Gagarin was a Russian "cosmonaut". He was the first man to go in space.

What two events set in motion trends that would determine Latin America's history?

the American Revolution and the Napoleonic invasion of Spain

Who is/was Fidel Castro?

a Cuban revolutionary who overthrew the government and became the Communist leader of Cuba

How many times did the USA intervene in the Caribbean and in Central America before 1933?

  Military interventions to protect U.S. owned property and investments became so common that there were more than 30 before 1933

What is the primary religion in Latin America?

Roman Catholicism

Who was B.G. Tilak?

Believed that nationalism in India should be based on appeals to Hindu religiosity; worked to promote the restoration and revival of ancient Hindu traditions; offended Muslims and other religious groups; first Populist leader in India.

What were the "Montagu Chelmsford reforms?

Increased the powers of Indian legislators at all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; passed in 1919

The 1919 Rowlett Act?

Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919

Who was M.K. Gandhi? What did he do?

'The Father of Indian Independence',or Bapu, he taught the guidelines of nonviolent resistance and led India to its independence from Great Britain and got killed.

Who was Kwame Nkrumah? What did he do?

African nationalist during period of decolonization; responsible for creation of first independent, black, African state of Ghana in 1957; established power through his own party, the Convention Peoples party (CPP).

Why have there been ethnic rivalries in decolonized African states?

because the Europeans colonized without paying attention to existing tribal differences, which were then preserved.

When and why was the Nation of Bangladesh created?

1971,it was known as East Pakistan,but large geographical distance separated it from the central government of Western Pakistan.

What was Technocrat?

A technocrat was a new breed of bureaucrats in the 1940's. They were given this name because of their intense training in engineering or economics and because of a devotion to the power of national planning, came to the fore in government offices. (p. 715)

What export commodity do some Third World countries have that has helped them?


What is "Neocolonialism"?

The preservation of the global trade balance so that the formerly colonized nations were at a disadvantage

Who was Nelson Mandela?

Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party; worked with the ANC leadership and F. W. De Klerk's supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country's history.

Who was "Mother Theresa"?

A Roman Catholic nun who gained worldwide regard for the aid she gave to the poor in Calcutta,India and who also established the Missionaries of Charity

When did the last Manchu/Qing Emperor abdicate?

Manchu boy-emperor, Puyi, abdicated in 1912.

Who was Mao Zedong?

Mao Zedong was a son of a fairly prosperous peasant. He struggled in his young adult life in history, philosophy, and economic theory. He later moved to a Beijing influenced by the May Fourth Movement (p. 862). He was influenced by characters such as Li Dazhao, who looked to solving peasant problems as key to Chinese survival. He joined Li's circle of communist thinkers and was a large part of the rise of the Communist Party in China. By the end of the Long March in mid-1930's, Mao was firmly established as the head of the Chinese Communist party. (p. 864, 868)

How did China deal with its population problems?

China realized that their population was rising rapidly. At the time of communist rise, the population was already at 550 million people. With economic degradation due to the "Great Leap Forward", the population increase was not a good thing. Beginning in the mid-1960's, the government launched a nationwide family planning campaign designed to limit urban couples to tow children and those in rural areas to one. 1970's brought a change and everyone was limited to two children. In 1980's, only one child was allowed to anyone. (p. 872)

What was the "Great Leap Forward"?

The Great Leap Forward was launched by Mao Zedong in 1958. It called for a revitalizing of the revolution by restoring its mass, rural base. Basically, it pulled money out of industrialization projects and put it into agricultural projects. It led to economic disaster. Instead of a Great Leap Forward, it became a great leap backward. The Great Leap Forward was Mao's worst decision and brought his end in the 1960's. (p. 871)

What was "The Long March"?

By the autumn of 1934, it was clear that the remaining communists in Hunan would be eliminated by Chiang's nationalist (German military advised) army. At the head of more than 90.000 party stalwarts, Mao Zedong set off on the Long March across thousands of miles of China to Shaanxi. (p. 868)

What was "The Cultural Revolution"

Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968

Who were the "Viet Minh"?

Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during WWII; employed guerrilla tactics similar to the Maoists in China

What was "Dien Bien Phu"?

Most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern position of Vietnam.

What were the years of the Russian Revolution?

One revolution from 1905-1907
Another revolution from 1917-mid 1920's which consisted of Lenin coming to power

What were the years of WWI?


What were the years of US involvement in WWI


What were the years of the Great Depression


What were the years of WWII


What were the years of US involvement in WWII?


What is the "United Nations"?

International organization formed in the aftermath of WWII; included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes

What was the Balfour Declaration?

The Balfour Declaration is the British minister's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine during WWI; issued in 1917

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