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Chapter 18 Key Points

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Essential Question: Describe how Peter the Great consolidated power and borrowed from the west to create a modern Russian state.

Identify: boyars- Russian nobles

Cossacks- Russian Pioneers

Old Believers- Dissident religious conservatives during Alexis Romanov’s rule were that were exiled to Siberia or to S. Russia

Obrok- the labor obligation of serfs to the nobles

Incognito- undercover, in disguise

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  1. Describe Russia before 1450. Culture had developed around Byzantium from 9th century onward; Russia had converted to Orthodox Christianity; Two centuries of Mongol rule reduced its’ cities and trade, and lowered its cultural and educational levels.

  2. List what four characteristics about Russia and Eastern Europe last to this day. The dominance of Russia, the formation of a Eurasian Russian Empire, the capacity for change, and ambivalence toward the West.

Russia’s Expansionists Politics Under the Tsars 1450-1650

  1. Describe how Ivan III (Ivan the Great) consolidated his power in Russia. He organized a strong army, giving the new gov. a military emphasis; He blended nationalism and religion together to win support for his campaigns;

  2. What were the Russian territorial boarders in 1480? From the borders of the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom to the Ural Mountains.

  3. Explain how Mongol rule changed Russia and describe what had not changed. Mongo control caused Russians to adopt clothing and social habits reduced the vigor of Russian cultural and economic life; Mongols never reshaped basic Russian values-religion, most local administrative issues remained were controlled by regional princes, landlords, or peasant villages.

  4. Why had Russia developed a purely agricultural economy by the 15th century? Because Mongol control caused trade to go down and manufacturing to become limited

  5. Explain how the Russian territory was settled under both Ivan II and Ivan IV. Ian the Great married nice of Byzantine emperor to control all Orthodox churches whether in Russia or not; Called Russia the Third Rome; AKA first Caesar; Ivan the Terrible placed grater emphasis on controlling the autocracy.

  6. Describe what consequences Russian expansion had for both Russia and Asia. It eliminated independent central Asia, added diverse peoples to Russia esp. Muslim minority, and created trading connections with its new Asian territories and their neighbors.

  7. Describe what types of contacts Russia made with Western Europe during the 16th century. During the reign of Ivan IV, British merchants established trading contacts with Russia as did other W. merchants with Moscow and other Russian centers; Tsars imported artists and architects from Italy.

  8. What as The Time of Troubles? How was it ended? Conflict over who would succeed Ivan IV. In 1613 an assembly of boyars chose a member of the Romanov family as tsar to end the time.

  9. Under Michael Romanov, what boundaries were established in Russia? Russia’s boundaries in the south expanded to meet those of the Ottoman Empire; He received Ukraine after defeating Poland

  10. Describe Alexis Romanov’s policies. He abolished the assemblies of nobles and gained new powers over the Russian church

Russia’s First Westernization 1690-1790

  1. Describe how Peter I (Peter the Great) built up an autocratic state. He used the Russian state as a reform force, trying to show that even aristocratic habits could be modified by state decree; He freed the sate from exclusive dependence on aristocratic officials

  2. Why did Peter move his capital to St. Petersburg? LOOK AT THE MAP! To provide nearly direct access to Western Europe along an ice-free port. Also to commemorate Russia’s shift of interests westward

  3. What country’s power was reduced as Russia’s grew? Sweden

  4. Describe what political, economic, and cultural changes Peter the Great made. Politically, he created a more well-defined military hierarchy with specialized bureaucratic departments; improved the army’s weaponry, and created first Russian navy; systemized law codes to extend through whole empire and revised the tax system; Economically, he focused on building up metallurgical and mining industries, andlords were rewarded for using serf labor; Culturally, he cut the Russian elite off from its traditions by shaving off their beards and wearing Westernized clothes; Wanted to make Russia culturally respectable to the West.

  5. Who was the most/least affected by these changes? The upper-class was the most affected, ordinary people were the least

  6. What was Peter’s goal in selectively borrowing from the West? He wanted economic development to support military strength rather than to achieve wider commercial goals, and to encourage the autocratic state.

  7. Explain how Catherine the Great is considered both enlightened but autocratic. HELP

  8. Explain why peasants actually suffered under Catherine’s rule. She gave landlords the right to requisition peasant labor, levy taxes in money and goods, and even impose punishments for crimes

  9. Who was Radishev? How did Catherine deal with him? Why? He was one of the first W. inspired radicals who sought abolition of serfdom and more liberal political rule; He was harassed by Catherine’s police and his writings were burned.

  10. List what Russian territorial gains were made during Catherine’s rule. She won new territory in central Asia, including the Crimea, bordering the Black Sea; She accelerated the colonization of Russia’s holdings in Siberia; She claimed Alaska for Russia, and explored the Pacific coast of N. America into N. California

  11. Explain how and why Russia was able to partition and gain control of Poland. Because The Polish government was very weak b/c its parliamentary system let members of the nobility veto any significant measure.

Themes in Early Modern Russian History

  1. Describe what Russian serfdom was like. Had to accept servile statues to the noble and owners when they couldn’t repay, didn’t retain primary ownership to land, in 1649 an act made status of the serfs hereditary; The system was a very unusual case where a people enslaved may of its own members.

  2. What product was produced for Western Europeans and what products were imported? Grain surplus was produced; manufacturing goods-luxury furnishings and clothing were imported.

  3. Why was it particularly difficult to escape serfdom in Russia? Most serfs were poor and illiterate and paid huge taxes that were never-ending

  4. How much of the Russian population was rural? 95%

  5. What groups were included in Russian society? Small merchant groups, serfs, landlords

  6. In what ways was the Russian economy of the 18th century doing well, in what ways did it lag behind Western Europe? It produced enough revenue to support an expanding state and empire; The system of underwriting aristocratic magnates and W. culture yielded a significant population growth; Overall the economy had advanced; Yet the system suffered from undeveloped agricultural methods w/ little motivation from peasants for improvement; Manufacturing lagged behind the W as well.

  7. Who was Pugachev? Why was he significant in 18th century Russia? He was a Cossack who claimed to be the tsar and promised an end to serfdom, taxation, the military conscription, and abolition of the landed aristocracy; he caused a specifically strong rebellion in the 1770s

  8. Why was Russia more successful at maintaining a multinational (multiethnic) empire than others? It benefited from having a larger core of ethnic groups ready to fan out to the frontiers and establish pioneer settlements; Russia was reasonably tolerant of internal diversity

  9. What areas of Eastern Europe were more influenced by Western European culture? Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and other E. European nations

  10. Which areas of Eastern Europe lost autonomy to larger empires? The Czech lands, Hungary, Poland

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