The AP World History Podcast: With Austin Pray and Alex Taylor, the “WHAP Podcast” helps review key concepts in AP World History
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Status of Chapter 12

Ok, so we are having some trouble getting the footage we recorded off of Alex's camera off of his camera...So we don't really have any video for you guys to see at the moment. The video is currently uploading to the server and can be found here: Unedited, Raw footage
I warn you, it is completely unedited and is quite a large file.

The completed episode will be released November 12th around 6:00pm - 7:00pm

Nevermind. Sorry guys, I didn't have time to release an episode...the completed key points is below though, it covers most of the important stuff in the chapter. Be sure to remember the order of the dynasties and look at how big each one was on a map.

Please direct all questions/anger to my email inbox:


Chapter 12 Key Points

Tang Dynasty

The Tang Dynasty. It was much bigger than the Han and Song Dynasties.

Ministry of Rites - administered several kinds of examinations which determined if you could hold a high office in the state.

Jinshi - those who scored high on the civil-service exams, they were at a higher social status

Sinified - influenced by Chinese culture. The Khitans(northern nomads) were highly sinified.

Scholar-gentry - responsible for much of the artistic and literary creativity of the Tang-Song era, educated elite

Neo-Confucianism - revival of Confucian thought in song dynasty. It was a philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist thought. Most important of the early Neo-Confucianists was the Chinese thinker Zhu Xi.


  1. What three key areas are a part of the orbit of Chinese influence?
    1. Japan
    2. Korea
    3. Vietnam
  2. What was characteristic of the Era of Division (220-589CE)?
    1. Destruction and Suffering, general emoness w/o the bad poetry.
  1. What school of thought was revived in the Tang era? What religion is its rival?
    1. Confucianism, Buddhism
  1. What were the 3 Post-classical dynasties in China? dates for each?
    1. Sui – 589 - 618
    2. Tang – 618 907
    3. Song – 960 - 1279
  1. What invaders end the Song Dynasty in 1279?

Mongols (Yuan, dynasty ruled all china)

Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice in the Sui-Tang Era


  1. Sui dates? Capital during the Sui Dynasty?

a.       Loyang

  1. Who was the first Sui emperor? How did he build a power base?

a.       Wendi, married his daughter off to a zhou ruler and seized powar

  1. Who took over Sui rule when the above emperor died?

a.       Yangdi who killed his dad

  1. What changes in government were made by the new ruler?

a.       He established a milder law code and improved Confucian education

  1. Why did revolts break out at the end of the Sui period?

a.       Forced peasants to build stuff

b.      Wars that didn’t work

c.       Turkic nomads invade

  1. Who founded the Tang dynasty? Where was the capital?

a.       Le  Yuan, Changan

  1. Dates for the Tang dynasty?
  2. How big was the territory controlled by the Tang?

a.       Huge bigger than Han

  1. Which nomadic group posed the greatest to the Tang?

                1) Turkic tribes

  1. What was the name of the vassal kingdom established in Korea?
    1. Silla
  2. Why did the Tang expand the Chinese bureaucracy?
    1. to unite the Chinese
  3. During the Tang era which groups shared political power?
    1. Imperial family, bureaucracy. Turkic tribes to some extent because they intermarried with the imperial family.
  4. What philosophy was studied by those being trained for the bureaucracy?
    1. Confucianism
  5. Besides gaining a government position what other privileges were given to those who scored high on the civil-service exams?
    1. JinShi got special social status, which let them wear special bling/clothes and could make ordinary bow to them and could just be general all around high-and-mighty arsewipes to people lesser than them.
  6. Explain how birth affected those chosen to work in the bureaucracy?
    1. established bureaucrats influenced family to get position
  7. What two groups were threatened by the revival of Confucian teachings?
    1. Aristocratic families and Buddhist monastic orders.
  8. What type of Buddhism was followed by the Chinese masses? the elites ?
    1. Mahayana Buddhism Chan/Zen Buddhism
  9. Which Tang ruler strongly supported Buddhism? How?
    1. empress Wu, donated money and tried to elevate it to state religion
  10. What criticisms were made by Confucians and Daoists about Buddhism?  
    1. it was alien and it interfered with the power of the government
  11. Describe how Buddhists were treated under Emperor Wuzong’s rule? What effect did this treatment have?
    1. they were persecuted and stuff was destroyed
  12. What ideology dominated Chinese thought from the 9th-20th century?
    1. Confucianism


Tang Decline and the Rise of the Song


  1. What conditions led to the fall of the Tang dynasty?
    1. worsening economic conditions -> peasant uprisings
    2. unstable imperial family
  2. Who founded the Song Dynasty? dates?
    1. Zhao Kuangyin
  3. How did the Song make peace with northern nomadic groups?
    1. Forced to make treaties with them because the nomads owned them.
  4. Describe how the military became subordinate to the scholar-gentry during the Song dynasty?
    1. only civil officials were allowed to be governors and military commanders were rotated
  5. What ideas were stressed by neo-Confucians?
    1. cultivating personal reality was the goal of human life and men were good and tradition
  6. Who was the most prominent neo-Confucian?
    1. zhu xi
  7. What affect did neo-Confucianism have on intellectual and social life in China?
    1. they made new schools and tried to recover new texts
  8. What problems lead to the decline of the Song dynasty?
    1. weakness they showed to the khitan
    2. money they had to spend on army and tribute
    3. running out of money and land
  9. How did Wang Anshi try to stop the collapse of the Song dynasty?
    1. he tried to remove corruption from government and gain more money by taxing people
    2. replaced armies with mercenaries
  10. What event brought an end to Anshi’s reforms?
    1. the shin zong emperor died and successor didn't like him
  11. Where was the capital moved to in the Southern Song period?
    1. hangzhou

Tang and Song Prosperity


  1. What two rivers were connected by the Grand Canal?
    1. yellow river and yang tzi
  2. List what commercial advances were made during this period in China.
    1. overland silk routes were protected and reopened
    2. they developed marine trade
    3. first use of paper money/ credit
  3. Describe what Changan and Hangzhou were like.
    1. both elaborate capital cities
  4. How did the state help encourage agrarian expansion?
    1. encouraged peasants to migrate to uncultivated places
    2. protected peasants
    3. regulated irrigation
  5. What evidence indicates that women had some improved social position during the Tang and early Song dynasties?
    1. elaborate marriage process
    2. they could wield power(shown by multiple empresses)
    3. divorce by mutual consent
    4. wealthy women in cities to multiple lovers with knowledge of their husband
  6. What evidence indicates that women suffered from worsening social conditions in the late Song era?
    1. Neo-Confucians came to power
    2. foot binding
  7. List what technological advances were made by the Chinese in this period?
    1. bridges
    2. gunpowder
    3. flame throwers
    4. rocket launchers
    5. chairs
    6. abacus
  8. Who was the most famous Tang era poet?
    1. li bo
  9. What two areas of artistic achievement were advanced in this period?
    1. literature and architecture
  10. What ultimately led to the fall of the Song?
    1. chingtis khan & other khans(awesome mongol leaders)
    2. conquered by the mongols