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Chapter 11 Key Points

WORKING ON IT

The Key Points Sheet For Chapter 11 (not finished)
I'm currently working on the finishing it right now...the finished one will be up in the morning I guess.

We will cover chapter 11 in it's entirety in the upcoming test review podcast.

Persian Charts

Disclaimer: These are here to help you study, NOT TO COPY.

Inca Persian Chart (THANKS TO: Kiran K.)
PDF .DOC (Microsoft Word)

Full Persian Chart (THANKS TO: Parth P.)
PDF .DOC (Microsoft Word)

Vocab / Key Points

Download: PDF RTF .DOC (Word) map

timeline

ORDER OF THE CIVILIZATIONS:
Teotihuacan -> Toltecs -> Aztecs
Indian - Those Europeans sure were stupid; Columbus made the mistake of calling the Americans "Indians" because he thought when he landed in America he was in the Indies, what Europeans called India and beyond.
Toltecs - toltec empire, established capitol at Tula. Came after Mayans. Originally nomadic people from northern frontier. Moved to a sedintary (stayed in one place) lifestyle. Strong Military ethic. Toltec art = sacrifice and war.
Aztecs - kinda remembered toltecs, controlled lakes, called themselves mexica, nomadic tribe -> ruling power,
Pipiltin - were members of the very highest social sphere in the ancient Aztec Empire. These people were members of the hereditary nobility and occupied the top positions in the government, the army and the priesthood. Pipitlin helped increase social stresses which attributed to internal weaknesses of the Aztec Empire's downfall.
Tlaloc - traditional Deity revered by the aztecs, rain god
Tlatelolco - neighbored tenochtitlan, seperate administration from tenochtitlan.
Calpulli - kin group that controlled city wards, maintained its neighborhood temples and civic buildings
Jesus, these are some crazy words
Cannibal Kingdom - Aztecs practiced ritual sacrifice and cannibalism due to the lack of protein. In Europe and abroad human sacrifice was replaced by animal sacrifice. No cattle and sheep in Mesoamerica = no transition to animal sacrifice. The Aztecs get a bad rap from being cannibals. Just remember that human sacrifice was EXTREMELY essential in Aztec society and religion.
Topac Yupanqui He became Inca in his turn upon his father's death in 1471, ruling until his own death in 1493. He conquered Chimor, which occupied the northern coast of what is now Peru, the largest remaining rival to the Incas.
Temple of the Sun - in cuzco, was the center of the state religion and inside it, mommies of the past incas were kept.
Yanas - people removed from their ayllus and served permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or the nobility
Topiltzin - a toltec leader and a preist dedicated to the god QUETZALCOATL (good luck spelling that on an essay). After a power struggle with another faction he was exiled to yucatan. He was supposed to return and take the throne, and maybe this might have contributed to the aztec confusion when the Europeans arrived.
Nahuatl - language of the toltecs, also spoken by the aztecs, made aztec dominance easer to accept
Quipu - system of knotted strings used for counting and recording numerical and some other information. They didn't have iPhones apparently.
Huitzilopochtli - was the patron god of the Aztecs most closely associated with the cult of human sacrifice.
Chinampas - floating, artificial islands made of earth piled on reed mats that were anchored to the shallow lake bed. Increased agricultural production. Irrigated crops.
Mayeques - a new class of workers was created to serve as laborers on these lands. These mayeques, or serfs, were sometimes from dependent clans or more often from conquered peoples.
Inca - the Inca empire ruler
Twantinsuyu - The Incas' name for the Inca Empire
Mitmaq - colonists, the inca made extensive use of them to integrate the empire, to make an example and to garrison the area
Ayllus - clans
Chichen Itza - in yucatan, conquered by toltec warriors in 1000ce, was one of many cities which was ruled under toltec influence
Tenochtitlan - founded in 1325 on an island in lake texcoco, next to tlatelolco, was kinda the capitol of aztec empire, joined in triple alliance but dominated tlacopan and texcoco
Tlacaelel - aztecs changed from loose associated clans to stratified society, this guy was a central figure in all of this. He was an advisor and prime minister under 3 rulers from 1427 - 1480. He rewrote history to serve the aztecs
Quetzalcoatl - one of the traditional deities, topiltzin dedicated himself to this Deity, god of civilization, ancient toltec god
Pochteca - special merchant class, operated great markets at Tlatelolco
Inca Socialism - a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
Pachacuti - was the ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438.
Split Inheritance - the Incan practice where all political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead ruler's mummy. This prompted the new ruler to seek more wealth and land, helping the empire grow.
Mita - labor turns, essential aspect of inca control. incas extracted labor from conquered areas.

Again, ORDER OF CIVILIZATIONS:
Teotihuacan -> Toltecs -> Toltecs fall in 1150 -> Aztecs

During the postclassical period, societies in the Americas remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.

The Toltecs established their capital in central Mexico around 968

After the sack of Tula, the center of population and political power in Mexico shifted to the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin.

City-states = government that was the basis for the imperial structure of the Aztecs during their first settlement in the valley of Mexico.

Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec empire.

In 1434, the Aztecs formed a triple alliance with two other cities.

From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society.

Tlacaelel was the prime minister of the Aztecs who expanded the practice of human sacrifice and rewrote the Aztec histories.

Some deities worshipped by the Aztecs:
  • Tonatiuh
  • Huitzilopochtli
  • Tula
  • Tlaloc

Huitzilopochtli was the patron god of the Aztecs most closely associated with the cult of human sacrifice.

Chinampas were the "floating islands" utilized for intensive agricultural production.

Conquered territories under Aztec administration were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.

Inca Socialism = a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.

Following the decline of the horizon states of Tihuanaco and Huari, a number of large states such as Chimor continued to be important.

Pachacuti was the ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438.

the Inca practice of split inheritance = All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead ruler's mummy.

Aztecs and Incas both shared the common practices of a tribute system

The population of the Americas was probably close to (almost the same number as) contemporary Europe's excluding Russia.