The AP World History Podcast: With Austin Pray and Alex Taylor, the “WHAP Podcast” helps review key concepts in AP World History
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Episode 5 - Chapter 16 & 17

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KEY POINTS Chapter 16 & 17
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Chapter 17: .DOC (MSWORD) .PDF .RTF

KEY POINTS Chapter 16

Completed by Austin

Whappodcast.com


Essential Question: What new ideas arose in this time period that forever changed European society?


Identify:

humanism - renaissance culture focused on humankind as a center for artistic and intellectual pursuits. Religious beliefs were not attacked, but religious principles were no longer predominant, all the cool kids didn't promote religious principles.

Martin Luther - a german monk who was convinced that only faith could gain salvation, monks could marry, and he wanted to translate the bible from latin so ordinary people could have direct access to the teachings. Lutheran Protestantism urged state control of church.

Jean Calvin - a church inspiring frenchman who established his base in the swiss city of geneva, calvinist churches believed in god's predestination of thows who would be saved. Calvinist churches also promoted the idea of wider access to government, broader education, and ministers were preachers of god's word

proletariat - people without access to wealth-producing property, victims of the higher productivity and better trade and transport facilities of the commercial revolution

Gutenburg - invented movable type, printing, building on chinese printing technology. This led to books being widely distributed.
mercantilism - the most universal economic theory at the time. Governments should promote the internal economy and improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations, so money is not lost to enemy states.


The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce


Where did the European Renaissance begin?

    Italy

Who were some of the prominent figures of the Italian Renaissance?

    Nicolo Machiavelli - political theory

    Petrarch and Boccaccio - promoted classical literary canons against medieval logic and theology

    Leonardo da Vinci - realistic view of body in art, da vinci code ;)

    Michelangelo - applied classical styles in painting to sculpture

Describe the changes that occurred in Western culture with regards to religion during this period.

    Religious principles were downplayed and humanism was the focus

Explain how leaders of the Italian city-states justified their rule.

    on the basis of what they could do to advance general well-being and their city's glory.

When did the Northern Renaissance begin?

    1450 after italy was invaded by french and spanish monarchs

How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?

    Northern Resnaissance people were more religious

What remained the same in Europe despite the new ideas introduced during the Renaissance?

    Outside of italy, Kings were still confined by the political powers of feudal landlords, ordinary people's lives went on unaffected, economic life also changed little.

Who invented the printing press?

    Johannes Gutenberg

What changes resulted in Europe from the invention of the printing press?

    Books were distributed in greater quantaties, expanded audience for renaissance writers, dissemenated religious ideas. Literacy began to gain ground.

Describe what the European-style family was like.

    Focused on nuclear family, late marriage age, focused on parents and children

When/how/why did the Reformation start?

    Began with Martin Luther's ideology in 1517 and took place during the 16th century. Martin Luther protested many catholic beliefs.

What reforms to the Catholic Church were proposed by Luther?

    Priests could marry

    Only faith could gain a person salvation

    Challenged Authority of the pope

    Bible should be translated from latin

Explain why many German princes supported Luther?

    They saw an oppurtunity to gain more power because thier leader, the holy roman emperor, remained caholic. Princes who were protestant could increase their independance and sieze chruch lands.

Explain why many peasants supported Luther?

    They saw Luther's attacks on the authority as approval for their own social rebellion against the landlords.

Why did Henry VIII set up the Anglican church?

    to challenge papal attempts to enforce his first marriage which had failed to produce a male heir

What was the basis of Jean Calvin’s religious ideas?

    calvinism insisted on God's destiny for those who would be saved

Explain how the Catholic church responded to these changes.

    they did not sit well under the protestant attack. They did not restore religious unity and defended southern europe, austria, poland, and much of hungary, and key points of germany for the catholic faith.

List 3 results of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (pgs 366-367)

    A series of religious wars

    reduced german power and presperityfor a full century

    english civil war in 1640

Which countries gained power from the changing political balance?

    France, Netherlands, Britain, and briefly Spain

Describe what popular beliefs changed with the Protestant and Catholic Reformation.

    People resisted the idea of miracles and other interventions in nature's course.

    Greater concentration on family life

    Growing literacy opened people to additional new ideas and ways of thinking

 

Why did price inflation occur in Western Europe at this time?

    The huge import of gold and silver by spain from it's new colonies in latin america jacked prices up

What types of manufacturing developed in Western Europe?

    Shoemaking, pottery, metalworking, and other manufacturing pecializations arose in both rural villages and the cities.

Explain what the proletariat is? Give an example.

    Someone without access to wealth producing property
    A manufactuing worker is a proletariat

What types of conflicts arose as some failed to benefit from the commercial revolution?

    Rebellions by peasants


Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change

    

When did the scientific revolution take place?

    during the 17th century

What advances are associated with each of the following
Copernicus - disproved the hellenistic belief that the earth was the center of the universe

Galileo - publicized copernicus's discoveries while adding hist own basic findings about the laws of gravity and planetary motion

Descartes - established the importance of critcal review of all recieved knowledge

Vesalius - astronomical work gained great precision
Kepler - important in the study of planetary motion, his discoveries not only advanced knowledge but also implied a new power for scientific research in its ability to test and often overrule accepted ideas
Harvey - demonsrated circular movement of blood in animals

Newton - set forth the basic principles of all motion

Bacon- urged the value of careful empirical research and predicted that scientific knowledge could advance steadily


What new and improved instruments helped advance scientific research?

    microscopes and improved telescopes

How were scientific advances spread?

    scientific institutes

What effect did the scientific revolution have on Christian beliefs?

    christian beliefs in human sinfulness crumbled in the view of the intelectuals' view of human nature as basically good.

What was an absolute monarchy?

    the king or queen has absolute power over all aspects of his/her subjects' lives. Although some religious authorities may be able to discourage the monarch from some acts and the sovereign is expected to act according to custom, in an absolute monarchy there is no constitution or legal restriction on the monarch's power.

List the ways French kings went about building up their power.

    Stopped convening the medieval parliament and passed laws as they saw fit, they literally blew up castles of disagreeing nobles, they appointed a growing bureaucracy drawn from the merchants and lawyers , they sent direct representatives to the outlying provinces, and professionalized the army

What groups staffed the growing French bureaucracy?

    Merchants and Lawyers

Which French king exemplified absolutism? List his achievements

    King Louis XIV

    gave the government cultural role beyond the previous levels

    encouraged science

    standardized french language

    kept nobles busy with social functions so they couldn't interfere with the government

Explain how mercantilism worked.

    government should promote internal economy to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations, so no money is lost to enemy states. Louis XIV set tariffs on imported goods and encouraged colonies to help proliferate the internal manufacturing machine at home

Where else did an absolute monarchy develop?

    Spain, Central European States, Prussia, eastern germany, Austria-Hungary,

Where did parliamentary systems develop?

    Britain and the Netherlands and western europe

At the end of the Glorious Revolution in England what powers were given to Parliament?

    it gained the right to approve taxation which allowed it to monitor or initiate most major policies

Summarize John Locke’s political argument.

    Power should come from the people, not from the divine right to royal rule

List what characteristics were common in the European nation-states.

    people shared a common culture and language


The West by 1750


What changes were made in Prussia by Fredrick the Great?

    he expanded economic functions, and introduced greater freedom of religion.

What were enlightened despots?

    a form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories.

What was the focus of the major Western nation-states policies?

    they produced recurrent warfare

Explain what the Enlightenment was.

   the aftermath of the sceintific revolution, this new movement continued to support scientific advance. pioneered the application of scientific methods to the study of human society. Rational laws could describe social as well as physical behavior .

What advances/ideas are associated with each of the following?
Adam Smith - set forth a bunch of principles of economic behavior

Denis Diderot - multifaceted leader of the french enlightenment

Mary Wollstonecraft - a femenist thinker, argued against the male-centered views of most other enlightenment thinkers


What basic set of principles about human affairs emerged as a result of the Enlightenment?

    human beings are good, at least, improvable, they can be educated to be better, reason is the key to truth, and religions that rely on blind faith or refuse to tolerate diversity are wrong.

How were enlightened ideas spread?

    Reading clubs and coffeehouses allowed many urban artisans and businessmen to discuss the lastest reform ideas. Encyhclopaedia britannica.

Describe how attitudes about children and family changed during this period in Western Europe.

    older methods of physical discipline were criticized in favor of more restained behavior that would respect the goodness oand innocence of children.

What examples showed that mass consumerism was spreading in Western Europe?

    westerners began to buy processed products such as sugar, coffee, or tea from indonesia and the west indies

List what agricultural changes occurred in the late 17th century in Western Europe.

    Potato became a staple crop

    Nitrogen fixing crops

    Stockbreeding

    Seed-Drills

    the use of Scythes instead of sickles

What was the domestic system?
    a system in which capitalist merchants distributed supplies and orders and workers ran the production process for pay

Explain how manufacturers were shifting to an industrialized economy in Britain.

    the spread of domestic manufacturing spurred important technical innovations designed to improve efficientcy. Manufacturers spent more time managing their productions rather than doing their own work

What effect did agricultural changes, commercialism, and manufacturing have on the population in Western Europe?

    It lead to population growth


KEY POINTS Chapter 17

Completed by Nathan
Whappodcast.com


Essential Question: What role did the Europeans play in the developing world market of the Early Modern Period?


Identify: Henry the Navigator- a Portuguese prince who organized a series of expeditions along the African coast and other insignificant places


Mercantilism- urged that a nation-state not import goods from outside its own empire but sell exports as widely as possible in its own ships


Boers-Dutch farmers… yeah


The West’s First Outreach: Maritime Power


  1. What technological advances were made by the Europeans in the 15th century?

Deep-raft, round-hulled sailing ships for the Atlantic, compasses which was stolen through a long line of stuff that starts with the Chinese, and explosive things like diet coke with mentos (joking of course), or gunpowder (from China)


  1. Did the Portuguese have any significant goods to offer for trade?

Not really, mostly crude goods like iron pots, and other things that suck like that, but they had a lot of gold, so that was good.


  1. Where did the Portuguese sail to in the 15th and 16th centuries?

The Portuguese sailed through the coast of Africa in search for India, but also had an incident of going off course to present day Brazil. They also traveled to Indonesia and Japan.


  1. What territorial claims were made by the Portuguese made by 1550?

They established sovereignty in Brazil, and set up forts in Africa and India, forerunners to the colonies in Mozambique in Africa and Goa in India.


  1. What was significant about these explorers?

Vasco de Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan

VASCO DE GAMA- His fleet of Portuguese ships finally reached India in 1498 with the aid of a Hindu pilot picked up in Africa, COLUMBUS (with Spain)- Accidently discovered the Americas, which he always thought to of been India, MAGELLAN (with Spain)- Went across the southern tip of S. America in his expedition starting in 1519 and ended up in Indonesia in 1521, which then the Spanish used this “trip around the world” to claim the Philippines until 1898


  1. What territories where claimed by Spain by the mid 16th century?

The Philippines, various Pacific islands, and the bulk of the Americas


  1. Why did the shift in exploration from the Portuguese and Spanish to the Dutch, French and British occur?

Because the Spanish and Portuguese were digesting their new gains and the British and the Dutch produced oceanic vessels, which were lighter and faster ships than those of their Catholic adversaries.


  1. What territories were claimed by the French by the end of the 16th century?

Basically present day Canada


  1. By the mid 17th century what areas had the Dutch claimed?Also had some holdings in N. America such as New York, and for a time: Brazil. They also had an establishment on the southern tip of Africa, along with ousting the Portuguese for the Indonesian islands.


  1. Why did the Dutch set up a settlement at the tip of Africa?

To provide a relay station for its ships bound for the East Indies


  1. Describe how the great trading companies operated.

Companies such as the Dutch East India Company and a British firm were given government monopolies of trade in the regions designated, but they weren’t rigorously supervised by their own states. They were also allowed to raise armies and coin money on their own.


Toward a World Economy


  1. What impact did the arrival of Europeans in the Americas have on native populations? Why?

They brought with them their Afro-Eurasian diseases that nearly wiped out 80% of the native population over a 150 year period because the natives had no immunity


  1. What products were exchanged in the “Columbian Exchange”?

American corn and sweet potatoes were taken up by the Chinese who learned of them through Spaniards in the Philippines; the use of tobacco, sugar, and coffee spread; horses and cattle introduced into the new world.


  1. What was significant about the battle at Lepanto in 1571?

Spanish fleet defeated the Ottoman Empire navy which obliterated the Muslim hope for rivalry against European naval power


  1. Where were the European ports located?

Spread along the west coast of Africa, several parts of the Indian subcontinent, and the islands of Southeast Asia by the 17th century


  1. What Chinese port did the Portuguese control?

The island port, Macao


Explain mercantilism/ What purpose did colonies serve in this system?

Urged that a nation-state not import goods from outside its own empire but sell exports as widely as possible in its own ships. Then tariff policies on the colonies discouraged manufacturing and stimulated home-based manufacturing.


  1. Describe how the African trade patterns changed at this time.

Yielded to a dominant focus on the Atlantic and therefore to activities organized by western shippers


  1. Why did coercive labor systems expand in this time period?

Because dependent economies relied on cheap production of unprocessed goods, there was a tendency to build a system of forced labor that would cost a little even when the overall labor supply was precarious.


  1. Describe China’s role in the international markets of this period.

Deliberately avoided international trade, but when it did interact with Europeans, it was at a fairly low level, and in fact, they depended on government regulation to keep European activities in check.




  1. What product was exported to China?

They did copy some firearms, and they ended up having the most silver which they were paid with for the goods to Europeans, but again, they never wanted to interact with the outsiders.



  1. Describe Japan’s response to Western traders?

Though initially attracted to western expeditions, they too quickly pulled back, but they showed some openness to Christian mission and they were also fascinated by western gunnery advances and shipping.


  1. What port was left open in Japan to the Dutch only?

Nagasaki


  1. List the areas of the world that the new world trade had little impact on.

India’s Mughal Empire, Ottoman and Safavid Empires, Russia, and much of Africa


  1. Describe how the British began to take control in India.

Britain passed tarrifs against the import of cotton cloth made in India. The intent was to use India as a market, for British processed goods and a source of outright payments for gold.


  1. What was characteristic of the labor used in Eastern Europe and Russia?

Well, the growth of cities in the west created a growing market for imported grains, which much of this demand was met by east European growers, and also Russian.


  1. What demand was met by these two regions?

a growing market for imported grains


Colonial Expansion


  1. How were the North American colonies different from those in Latin America?

They were far smaller in terms of population, and the value of their imports and exports also remained insignificant. N. American colonies had much more similar culture to West Europeans than Latin America


  1. Which group originally settled Canada and what led to the British taking control of that area?

France, then the British attacked which started the Seven Years’ War, then ended with the Treaty of Paris which gave that land to Britain


  1. What economic developments distinguished North American colonies from Latin American?

The value of N. American products such as timber and fur did not do nearly as well profit wise as products in Latin America did, thus there was less attention to economic regulation


  1. In what ways were North American colonists more like Europeans than Latin Americans?

The colonies operated their own assemblies, which provided political experience to people; Calvinist and Quaker church assemblies gave governing power to elders or wider congregations; they also were avid readers of European political theories.


  1. Why were Europeans only able to control small coastal fortresses in Africa?

They were deterred by disease, climate and nonnavigable rivers from trying to reach the interior



  1. Explain how/why the Dutch took control of South Africa?

Through more direct and disruptive expeditions, the Dutch took in the Cape Colony, and the intent was to provide a relay station for its ships bound for the East Indies


  1. Why did the Portuguese explore Angola?

In search for slaves


  1. Who were the Boers?

Dutch farmers


  1. Which European country colonized the Philippines?

Spain


  1. What two countries began to fight for control of India?

British and French


  1. What advantage did the British have in this rivalry?

Already gained a station in Calcutta, which gave it access to great wealth from the Ganges Valley and had enormous influence on British government which through the navy, had excellent communication on ocean routes.


  1. What was the “black hole” of Calcutta?

After a battle there with an Indian ruler of Bengal, English prisoners were placed in their own jail and perhaps 120 died from humidity and overcrowding.


  1. Explain how the French power in India was taken by the British.

British used the black hole of Calcutta to rally their forces and seize it back, and take additional French and Indian territory which destroyed French power.


  1. What areas of India did the British East India Company control by the late 18th century?

The Mughal Empire still had its own territory, though it was petite, and Britain gained some new territories by force but was also content to f0rm alliances with local princes without disturbing their internal administration.


  1. Where in Asia and Africa were the Europeans able to gain converts to Christianity?

The Philippines, but none else where


  1. How did colonization affect Europeans back home?

Added hostilities, use of colonial produced sugar spread which previously was a costly, upper class item, which now created a larger role for dentists.


  1. Describe what affects resulted from the developing world economy.

Caused immense internal changes, such as population patterns in Africa, Indian manufacturing levels declining by the 18th century, and Christianity being mixed with regional culture in Latin America. Knowledge of foodstuff and increased trade helped many agricultural societies expand populations and deal with scarcity.

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