The AP World History Podcast: With Austin Pray and Alex Taylor, the “WHAP Podcast” helps review key concepts in AP World History
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Chapter 28
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Episode 10 - Chapter 28 Part 1

Part 1 from World War 1 to Great Depression

Episode 10 - Chapter 28 Part 2

Part 2 from The Great Depression to Cold War

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Key Points

Chapter 28: .DOC (MSWORD)

Key points completed by Nicole from Thanks Nicole!

KEY POINTS: Chapter 28


Essential Question: How were the two world wars different from previous wars?



Adolf Hitler – Nazi leader of fascist Germany 1933-1945; created strongly centralized state; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to WWII; responsible for attempted genocide of Jews Allies – Triple Entente in WWI

Anschluss – Hitler’s union of Germany w/ German-speaking Austrians 1938, despite complaints of other European nations

Balfour Declaration – British minister’s promise of support for est. of Jewish settlement in Palestine during WWI 1917

Benito Mussolini - Italian fascist leader post-WWI; 1st fascist gov’t based on aggressive foreign policy & new nationalist glories

Blitzkrieg – German term for lightning warfare: rapid movement of troops, tanks, & machines; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in WWII Brest-Litovsk Treaty – Russia & Germany March 1918; Russia out of WWI, granted some territories to Germany in return for peace Central Powers – Triple Alliance in WWI

Cold War – US & allies + Soviet Union & allies 1947-1990; creation of pol spheres of influence & a nuclear arms race, no combat

Fascism – pol philosophy predominant in Italy & Germany 1920s-1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction

Harry Truman – US Pres. 1945-1952; less eager for smooth relations w/ Soviet Union than FDR; authorized use of atomic bomb during WWII; architect of American diplomacy that initiated the cold war

Iron curtain – phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe division between free & communist societies in Europe after 1946

Joseph Stalin – succeed Lenin as head of USSR; nationalist Communist; anti-West; crushed opposition to his rule; est. series of 5-yr plans to replace New Eco Policy; fostered agri collectivization; led USSR thru WWII; furthered cold war w/ W Euro & US

League of Nations – Int’l diplomatic & peace org created in Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI; LON

NATO – 1949 created under US leadership to group most of the Western European powers + Canada in defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression; stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Triparite Pact – Alliance of Japan, Germany, and Italy signed September 1940; created alliance system for WWII

Triple Alliance – Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy 1890s; part of Euro alliance system & balance of power b4 WWI

Triple Entente – Alliance of Britain, Russia, and France early 1900s; part of Euro alliance system & balance of power b4 WWI

Warsaw Pact – made in response to NATO pact, allied Soviet Union with other eastern European allies

Winston Churchill – British prime minister during WWII; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults

What happened to the world’s population during the 20th century? It got more than tripled. ***Note: int’lization = internationalization

What int’l agencies formed prior to the 20th century? Int’l Statistical Congress, Red Cross, Telegraphic Union, Postal Union

What were the two general weaknesses of the international movement? Based heavily on W dominance and control of empires, int’lization gained ground at same time nationalism was rising in Europe and elsewhere


World War I


When did WW I start? 1914 Where was nationalism the most problematic in Europe? Balkans

What was the immediate cause of WWI? Underlying causes? Serbia wants to be free, Austria doesn’t want them to, Russia and France defend Serbia; nationalist struggles, competition for military growth, diplomatic tensions, two rival alliances

What two European nations started a naval rivalry prior to WWI? Britain and Germany

Where were the major battle fronts of WWI? French/Western front, Russian/Eastern front, Italian front

What German policy led to US involvement in WWI? Attack American ships containing British people and supplies

Describe the type of warfare that resulted on the western front. Trench warfare, artillery, machine guns, barbed-wire fences

Explain how government involvement expanded with war. Whole industrial sectors administered, exec branch took over parliament, lean heavily on public opinion, dissent censored, dissenters arrested, news and media manipulated/one-sided

What British dominions became involved in WWI? Canada, Australia, New Zealand

How was the US economy affected by WWI? Big exports, gave loans to European countries, int’l debtor to creditor nation

What became the role of the United States in fighting WWI? Fight for int’l justice and democracy

How were Africans, Asians, and the Ottomans affected by WWI? Africans: Fight in German colonies, Pan-African Nationalist Congress 1919; Asians: Japan enters & ally w/ BrFr, Australia & NZ take over German Samoa, China declare war on Germany 1917, Japan move into German holdings in China, Indian troops; Ottomans: Germany’s defeat = their split, Palestine goes to the Jews

What two countries emerged as world powers at the end of WWI? US and Japan

Why did WWI end? Fr-Br-Am counteroffensive pressed forward, aided by collapse of Habsburg forces in Italy & Balkans

Why was a new government installed in Germany just before the end of the war? So they wouldn’t get all the blame for losing

What territories did France gain at the end of WWI? Alsace, Lorraine What territory did Japan gain? Shantung province

What was the American political policy at the end of WWI? Isolation

What new nations formed after WWI? Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia

What sanctions were placed against Germany in the peace settlement? Lost lands to other nations, no more global empire, unfit for colonial rule, blamed for causing the war, faced w/ large reparation payments to the Allies

What happened to the former Ottoman territories? Turkey created, rest mandates of LON: Br Palestine, Iraq; Fr Syria, Lebanon



The Great Depression


How did wartime production by farmers contributed to inflation? Borrow heavily to buy new equip and overconfident that their good markets would be sustained, rising Euro prod and large imports from Ams sent prices down, debts harder to pay back, farmers unable to sustain high demand for manufactured goods

Why did expert economies suffer a lot during Great Depression? Production down, unemployment up, stocks crash, banks fail

What country was the least affected by the depression? Why? Russia b/c people called to sustain rapid industrial development without outside capital, which prevented a depression from happening

What changes occurred in Latin America, the West, Japan and Germany because of the Great Depression? LA: new kinds of effective pol action, greater state involvement, start pol revolution; W: production down, income down; Japan: sever unemployment, pol crisis, value of exports plummet, bad harvest; Germany: Nazism, low wages, increasing dependence on military production


World War II


When did WWII start? 1939 What were the causes of WWII? Military expansion by new Japan & Germany regimes

Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria in 1931? Scared that Chinese would take it back during Chinese nationalist movement

Where did Mussolini (Italy) attack in 1935? Ethiopia Where in Europe did a civil war break out in 1936? Spain

How did the League of Nations respond to both of the above attacks? Said it was bad but did nothing to fix the problem

Outline Hitler’s policies/actions that led to WWII. No reparation payments, rearmament 1935, out of League of Nations 1936, Anschluss, took over Czechoslovakia March 1939, attack Poland 9/1/1939

When did war in China start? What resulted? 1937, Japan early lead, then stalemate; Tripartite Pact btwn aggressor states

Why did Japanese attack the U.S.? US holdings in Hawaii & Philippines, US attempt to w/hold materials Japan needed for war eco

When was Pearl Harbor attacked? 12/7/1941 What territories did Japan take from the U.S.? Philippines, Am lands in E Pac

What European nation stood alone against German attacks in 1940? Britain

Why did Russia enter WWII? Germans try to colonize/attack Russia When did the fighting in Europe end? 1945

What two cities were bombed by the Americas with nuclear weapons? Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Describe human losses in WWII. 300000 Nanking, 6 mil Holocaust, 80000 Japanese, 78000 Hiroshima, 35 mil total, 20 mil Soviet

What new international organization was formed at the end of WWII? United Nations

What key problem emerged among the allies after WWII? Soviet-US tension, destroy Germany’s industrial structure or not

What happened to Germany and Japan after WWII? Germany divided into 4 occupational zones, no more Nazi influences, disarmed; Japan lose wartime gains and Korea, former Asian colonies back to old “masters”, Korea freed but divided

What territory did the Soviet Union gain after WWII? Baltic states: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

In Depth


What is “total war”? warfare of 20th century; vast resources and emotional commitments of belligerent nations marshaled to support military effort; resulted from impact of industrialization on military effort reflecting tech innovation and organizational capacity

How were 20th century “total wars” different from past wars? Mass conscription of men, new citizen involvement, more destructive weapons, propaganda, great devastation, more economically disruptive

The Cold War & Decolonization 1945-1989


What was the Marshall Plan? Program of substantial loans designed to aid W nations in rebuilding from WWII’s devastation

What areas of the globe gained U.S. support to counter the Russian advances? W Europe, N S.Am., Canada, Pacific Rim

Why was the city of Berlin blockaded in 1947 and how did the U.S. respond to the blockade?

B/c W promote German economic recovery by creating stable currency; massive airlift to keep city supplied

What two Cold War rival alliances developed? United States & allies vs. Soviet Union & allies

What was characteristic about Cold War military policies? The fight for/against international communism

In what two areas did U.S. and communists actually fight in the 1950’s and 1960’s? South Vietnam, Cuba

Where were Soviet missiles placed that directly threatened the U.S.? Cuba

What was characteristic of the Cold War in the 1970’s? Reduced tensions, more agreements, decolonization, nonalignment

Explain why the process of decolonization was as important as the Cold War.

Creation of a host of new/revived nations, many of them quickly developed strong gov’ts and regional military arsenals of their own

How did the Cold War affect international connections? Increased, no global depressions but economic problems in one area often affected others, ex. oil shortages 1973 1979, many multinational companies began production operations in various parts of the world, exploitation of cheap labor a goal of those companies à new industries but new hardships, int’l pollution problems

When/why did the Cold War come to an end? 1989 b/c Pres. Reagan increased military spending and Soviets in economic crisis, Gorbachev make arms reduction agreements w/ US and obliged to recognize full indep. of satellite states in E Europe, collapse of the communist system in Europe, end of the Soviet Union in 1991

Describe the international military and economic conditions that existed as the 20th century came to a close.

US had no full military superpower rivals, old alliance systems began to close down, US still anticommunist; regional conflicts in Iraq, India & Pakistan, former Yugoslavia, central Africa; US and/or UN had to come in and help; reassertions of regional identities: east Asians see weaknesses in W values, revival of Islam, Hindu nationalism; new emphasis on regional but supernat’l trade blocs: EU expanded membership and proposed further growth, NAFTA US-Mexico-Canada and maybe Latin America; most major societies in all regions moved towards more commercial policies: reduce state-run enterprises for more freer market & greater competition

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